Understanding the Party Wall Act

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The Party Wall Act 1996 (“PWA”) is a crucial piece of legislation designed to regulate building works that may affect shared walls or structures between adjoining properties.

Enacted in 1996, the PWA establishes a framework for communication and dispute resolution between building owners and their neighbours to ensure that construction projects proceed smoothly while safeguarding the rights and interests of all parties involved.

What is the Party Wall Act?

The PWA primarily addresses scenarios where building works, such as extensions, renovations, or structural alterations, might impact the structural integrity of neighbouring properties. The PWA establishes a legal process for serving notice to adjoining owners, seeking their consent and addressing disputes through a structured procedure.

Protection for Building Owners

The PWA provides essential protections for building owners undertaking construction projects. Key features include:

Notice Requirement:

Building owners are required to serve formal notice to their neighbours before commencing any work covered by the PWA. This notice outlines the nature of the proposed construction and its potential impact on the party wall or structure.

Consent or Dissent

Neighbours can respond to the notice by either giving their consent or dissent. If they consent, the building owner can proceed with the work as planned. If they dissent, a dispute resolution process is triggered.

Dispute Resolution

The PWA provides mechanisms for resolving disputes, including the appointment of surveyors who mediate and determine the scope of the work, as well as the responsibilities of each party.

The Limitations: Power v Shah (2023)

A recent case, Power v Shah (2023), has shed light on certain limitations of the PWA. The case confirms that the building owner must initiate the PWA process before the neighbouring owner can invoke the dispute resolution mechanisms provided by the PWA. In the absence of a formal notice having been served, a neighbouring owner will have to rely on common law remedies, such as trespass, nuisance and negligence, and/or possibly an injunction to prevent the works from proceeding. Building owners would be best placed to serve a formal notice at the earliest opportunity to avoid being embroiled in a dispute outside of the PWA dispute resolution process.

Lack of Enforcement Mechanisms

One notable drawback of the PWA is the absence of direct enforcement mechanisms. While the PWA establishes a structured process for resolving disputes, it does not empower surveyors or Local Authorities to enforce compliance with the agreed-upon terms.

Without specific enforcement mechanisms, neighbours who feel aggrieved by a building owner’s non-compliance with the PWA may have no alternative but to resort to court proceedings. This adds additional complexity and cost to dispute resolution, potentially straining relationships between neighbours.


The PWA plays a crucial role in facilitating communication and resolving disputes between building owners and their neighbours. Whilst it provides important protections, the limitations highlighted by the Power v Shah (2023) case underscore the importance of prompt initiation of the PWA process.

Additionally, the lack of enforcement mechanisms within the PWA emphasizes the need for parties to act in good faith and seek amicable resolutions to avoid protracted legal battles. As construction projects continue to shape the urban landscape, understanding the PWA and its limitations is essential for all parties involved.

Contact our property dispute resolution solicitors today

Navigating the intricacies of the PWA and resolving disputes can be challenging. If you have any questions or would like advice on the Party Wall Act, please get in touch with our specialist Property Disputes team by using our online enquiry form or by calling 0330 404 0768.


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